MSE465 : Structural and Chemical Characterization of Materials
Study of the basic structural and chemical characterization techniques that are commonly used in materials science and engineering. X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction, a wide range of spectroscopies, microscopies, and scanning probe methods will be covered. Lectures will be integrated with a laboratory where the techniques will be demonstrated and/or used by the student to study a material. Techniques will be presented in terms of the underlying physics and chemistry.
Prerequisites: MSE 250/220 or equivalent, MSE 242 and MSE 350 suggested
Cognizant Faculty: Yalisove, Goldman, Millunchick, Pan, Mansfield
- X-ray production and properties
- Crystallography and Diffraction
- Lab 1: Safety and operation of x-ray equipment and x-ray adsorption (Miniflex)
- Reciprocal Space
- Lab 2: Diffraction from bone and refractory metals (Miniflex)
- Ewald sphere construction
- Structure factor
- Diffraction Intensity
- Electron Diffraction
- Lab 3: Transmission Electron Diffraction (JEOL 4000 FX)
- Surface Diffraction and Film growth
- Lab 4: Orientation and quality of crystals (RHEED)
- Diffraction from real crystals
- Electron Microscopy and image contrast
- Lab 5: TED/TEM of polycrystalline film
- Fourrier Transform methods and diffraction
- Scanning electron microscopy
- Lab 6: Orientation imaging and Biological imaging in the environmental SEM (Phillips Scope and OIM system and environmental SEM)
- Neutron Diffraction
- General Concepts of Spectroscopy
- Non-radiative spectroscopy: Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
- Lab 7: AES (Phi Scanning Auger)
- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
- Lab 8: XPS (Perkin Elmer XPS system)
- Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)
- Lab 9: RBS (Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory)
- Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
- Radiative spectroscopy: X-ray energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopies (XEDS/WDS)
- Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)
- Lab 10: XEDS/EELS (JEOL 2010)
- Absorption spectroscopy: Fourrier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (IR)
- Lab 11: FTIR from Natural Silk Fibers (Nicolet FTIR)
- Scanning probe microscopies (STM and AFM)
- Lab 12: AFM: Crystallites of Dental Enamel (Nanoscope III)
- To provide students with a foundation in the structural and chemical characterization of materials to prepare them for jobs in industry or research in this field.
- To teach students intermediate concepts of diffraction and scattering mechanisms both physically and with a high degree of mathematical sophistication.
- To apply concepts from physics, chemistry and mathematics to the underlying mechanisms responsible for the spectroscopic methods presented in the course.
- To teach students basic concepts of forensic design to solve real problems in materials characterization.
- To teach students, the advantages, limitations and inherent resolution of characterization methods.
- To expose the students to the actual characterization technologies used in modern materials analysis via a laboratory component of the course.
The students who successfully pass this course with an A grade will be able to (at a minimum):
- Use absorption data to determine the absorption characteristics of materials, and explain the origins of different absorption. processes.
- Explain how x-rays, electrons, neutrons, and ions can be produced and what the spectra from these sources would look like.
- Calculate the wavelength of electrons and neutrons with proper relativistic corrections.
- Derive the Bragg and Laue equations and the Ewald sphere construction.
- Describe reciprocal space and its value to their parents.
- Demonstrate the calculation of structure factor and explain why this is the Fourrier transform of the unit cell.
- Identify and describe the physical origin of the corrections that are needed to calculate the intensity of a diffraction pattern.
- Explain the advantages and limitations of electron, x-ray and neutron diffraction.
- Use the Ewald sphere construction to describe any of the diffraction experiments that we cover in class.
- Explain why reciprocal lattice spots will undergo shape transforms as a result of the shape and size of the sample.
- Index zone axis electron diffraction patterns.
- Explain the origin and use of Kikuchi bands.
- Explain the origin of diffraction contrast, strain contrast, and thickness fringes in a TEM image.
- Explain why a '2-beam' condition is used for imaging in the dark field and why a weak beam image is often acquired.
- Draw and explain the diffraction patterns that would be observed from amorphous materials.
- Explain how real crystals would modify the diffraction from ideal crystals including, strain, temperature, mosaic spread, beam divergence and heterogeneous structure.
- Describe how the following instruments work: TEM, SEM, x-ray diffractometer, synchrotron source, solid state, ccd, and proportional detectors, etc.
- Describe the mechanisms for energy absorption or evolution in each of the following spectroscopies: AES, XPS, XEDS, EELS, IR, RBS.
- Explain what spectroscopy is and what it can do.
- Describe the resolution limits of each of the spectroscopies studied and explain what limits it.
- Design a strategy for solving materials characterization problems.
- Choose the correct combinations of characterization tools to solve particular problems.
- Two, in-class, closed-book exams.
- Weekly problem sets and/or Laboratory reports.
- Project involving the construction of a web page on a selected characterization problem and solution.